A Conceptual Model of Analogue Gamification to Enhance Learners' Motivation and Attitude

Rita Wong Mee Mee(1*), Lim Seong Pek(2), Wong Yee Von(3), Khatipah Abd Ghani(4), Tengku Shahrom Tengku Shahdan(5), Md Rosli Ismail(6), Yugeshineey Subba Rao(7),

(1) Universiti Selangor
(2) Universiti Selangor
(3) Universiti Selangor
(4) Universiti Selangor
(5) Universiti Selangor
(6) Open University Malaysia
(7) Universiti Selangor
(*) Corresponding Author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26858/ijole.v5i2.18229


The concept of gamification has spread widely in recent years supported by the development of technology, especially due to the plethora of computers and video games and game apps for other devices. Gamification is the use of game thinking and game mechanics in non-game contexts that support play to engage users in solving problems or created for teaching and learning purposes. Gamification does not mean creating games but making education more engaging and fun with play for learners, without undermining its credibility. In modern education, lessons delivery is associated with the lack of engagement and motivation of learners to participate actively in the learning process. Teachers are increasingly faced with the problem of how to integrate technology and to impart good language learning habits at the level of primary school in Malaysia. Hence, the aim of this study is to propose a conceptual model of analogue gamification to enhance primary school learners’ motivation and attitude.


Analogue Gamification; Game-Based Learning; Serious Games; Motivation; Attitude

Full Text:



Abdul Jabbar, A. I., & Felicia, P. (2015). Gameplay engagement and learning in game-based learning: A systematic review. Review of educational research, 85(4), 740-779.

Akcaoglu, M., & Kale, U. (2016). Teaching to teach (with) game design: Game design and learning workshops for preservice teachers. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 16(1), 60-81.

Al-Azawi, R., Al-Faliti, F., & Al-Blushi, M. (2016). Educational gamification vs. game based learning: Comparative study. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 7(4), 132-136.

Al Fatta, H., Maksom, Z., & Zakaria, M. H. (2018). Game-based Learning and Gamification: Searching for Definitions. International Journal of Simulation: Systems, Science and Technology.

An, Y. J., & Cao, L. (2017). The effects of game design experience on teachers’ attitudes and perceptions regarding the use of digital games in the classroom. TechTrends, 61(2), 162-170.

Bogost, I. (2015). Why gamification is bullshit. The gameful world: Approaches, issues, applications, 65.

Boyle, E. A., Hainey, T., Connolly, T. M., Gray, G., Earp, J., Ott, M., ... & Pereira, J. (2016). An update to the systematic literature review of empirical evidence of the impacts and outcomes of computer games and serious games. Computers & Education, 94, 178-192.

Broer, J., & Pöppelbuß, J. (2013). Gamification–a New Phenomenon in Information Systems Research?.

Buckley, P., & Doyle, E. (2016). Gamification and student motivation. Interactive learning environments, 24(6), 1162-1175.

Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O'Hara, K., & Dixon, D. (2011). Gamification. using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. CHI'11 extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems, 2425-2428.

Flores, J. F. F. (2015). Using gamification to enhance second language learning. Digital Education Review, (27), 32-54.

Garneli, V., Giannakos, M., & Chorianopoulos, K. (2017). Serious games as a malleable learning medium: The effects of narrative, gameplay, and making on students’ performance and attitudes. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(3), 842-859.

Gerber, H. R., & Price, D. P. (2013). Fighting baddies and collecting bananas: Teachers’ perceptions of games-based literacy learning. Educational Media International, 50(1), 51-62.

Getie, A. S. (2020). Factors affecting the attitudes of students towards learning English as a foreign language. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1738184.

Hsu, C. Y., Liang, J. C., Chai, C. S., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). Exploring preschool teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge of educational games. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 49(4), 461-479.

Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2017). A definition for gamification: anchoring gamification in the service marketing literature. Electronic Markets, 27(1), 21-31.

Icard, S. B. (2014). Educational technology best practices. International Journal of instructional technology and distance learning, 11(3), 37-41.

Johnson, M. R., & Luo, Y. (2019). Gaming-value and culture-value: Understanding how players account for video game purchases. Convergence, 25(5-6), 868-883.

Jones, B. A., Madden, G. J., & Wengreen, H. J. (2014). The FIT Game: preliminary evaluation of a gamification approach to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in school. Preventive medicine, 68, 76-79.

Kapp, K. (2014). GAMIFICATION: Separating Fact From Fiction. Chief Learning Officer, 13(3), 45-52.

Koh, E., Kin, Y. G., Wadhwa, B., & Lim, J. (2012). Teacher perceptions of games in Singapore schools. Simulation & Gaming, 43(1), 51-66.

Laamarti, F., Eid, M., & El Saddik, A. (2014). An overview of serious games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2014.

Licorish, S. A., Owen, H. E., Daniel, B., & George, J. L. (2018). Students’ perception of Kahoot!’s influence on teaching and learning. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 13(1), 9.

Looney, J. (2011). Developing High‐Quality Teachers: teacher evaluation for improvement. European Journal of Education, 46(4), 440-455.

McColgan, M., Colesante, R., & Andrade, A. (2018). Pre-service teachers learn to teach with serious games. Journal of STEM Education, 19(2).

Mee, R. W. M., Shahdan, T. S. T., Ismail, M. R., Ghani, K. A., Pek, L. S., Von, W. Y., Woo, A., & Rao, Y. S. (2020). Role of gamification in classroom teaching: Pre-service teachers’ view. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(3), 684-690.

Miller, D. J., & Robertson, D. P. (2011). Educational benefits of using game consoles in a primary classroom: A randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 850-864.

Ming, T. S., Ling, T. S., & Jaafar, N. M. (2011). Attitudes and motivation of Malaysian secondary students towards learning English as a second language: A case study. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature®, 17(1).

Mohamad, S. N. M., Salam, S., & Bakar, N. (2017). An analysis of gamification elements in online learning to enhance learning engagement. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computing & Informatics, 452-460.

Mohamad, S. N. M., Sazali, N. S. S., & Salleh, M. A. M. (2018). Gamification approach in education to increase learning engagement. Int. J. Humanit. Arts Soc. Sci, 4(1), 22-32.

Nicholson, S. (2015). A recipe for meaningful gamification. Gamification in education and business, 1-20.

Omar, S. F., Nawi, H. S. A., Shahdan, T. S. T., Mee, R. W. M., Pek, L. S., & Yob, F. S. C. (2020). Interactive language learning activities for learners’ communicative ability. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(4), 1010-1016.

Pala, A., Akyıldız, M., & Bağcı, C. (2011). Academic procrastination behaviour of pre-service teachers’ of Celal Bayar University. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1418-1425.

Pek, L. S., & Mee, R. W. M. (2015). Selfie: Engaging Life Experiences into Writing. Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, 17(2).

Quy, P. H. P. (2019). Cooperative Game-Playing in the EFL Classroom. English Teaching Forum, 57(3), 14-23.

Ratnaningsih, N. (2018). The Analysis of Mathematical Creative Thinking Skills and Self-Efficacy of High Students Built Through Implementation of Problem Based Learning and Discovery Learning. JPMI (Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Indonesia), 2(2), 42-45.

Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. Handbook of research on student engagement, 149-172.

Rigby, C. S. (2015). Gamification and motivation. The gameful world: Approaches, issues, applications, 113-138.

Romero, M., & Barma, S. (2015). Teaching pre-service teachers to integrate Serious Games in the primary education curriculum. International Journal of Serious Games, 2(1).

Sanchez E. (2019). Game-Based Learning. In: Tatnall A. (eds) Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies. Springer, Cham.

Sandberg, J., Maris, M., & De Geus, K. (2011). Mobile English learning: An evidence-based study with fifth graders. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1334-1347.

Silva, F. G. (2020). Practical Methodology for the Design of Educational Serious Games. Information, 11(1), 14.

Wronowski, M., Urick, A., Wilson, A. S., Thompson, W., Thomas, D., Wilson, S., ... & Ralston, R. (2020). Effect of a serious educational game on academic and affective outcomes for statistics instruction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(8), 2053-2084.

Yadav, A. K., & Oyelere, S. S. (2020). Contextualized mobile game-based learning application for computing education. Education and Information Technologies, 1-24.

Yeh, Y. C., & Lin, C. S. (2018). Achievement goals influence mastery experience via two paths in digital creativity games among elementary school students. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 34(3), 223-232.

Zhonggen, Y. (2019). A meta-analysis of use of serious games in education over a decade. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 1-8.

Zirawaga, V. S., Olusanya, A. I., & Maduku, T. (2017). Gaming in Education: Using Games as a Support Tool to Teach History. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(15), 55-64.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 1337 times | PDF view : 283 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/




Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.