Teachers’ Oral Feedback in EFL Classroom Interaction (A Descriptive Study of Senior High School in Indonesia)

Erfiani Irawan(1*), Kisman Salija(2),

(2) Universitas Negeri Makassar
(*) Corresponding Author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26858/eltww.v4i2.4496


This research aimed to identify types and ways of oral feedback used by teachers in EFL classroom interaction based on the theory of Tunstall & Gipss (1996), Lyster & Ranta (1997), Cullen (2002), and Mackiewicz & Thompson (2013). This research also investigated teachers’ reasons for using oral feedback and students’ perceptions of oral feedback used by teachers in EFL classroom interaction. This research was conducted at Senior high school in Indonesia. The researcher applied descriptive qualitative research method. The subjects of this research were 2 English teachers and 12 students. All of them were chosen by using purposive sampling technique. The instruments of this research were audio recording, field notes, and interview. The result of this research showed that the teachers used 5 types of oral feedback, namely evaluative feedback, corrective feedback, descriptive feedback, interactional feedback, and motivational feedback. The teachers used oral feedback through providing evaluative statements to students’ work or performance, indicating and correcting students’ errors explicitly or implicitly, informing students’ achievement and the improvement strategies of learning, clarifying and embellishing some ideas on students’ responses, and providing motivational statements to students. The teachers employed oral feedback because of teachers’ responsibility and obligation to provide it, the effective and efficient feedback mode, the utility of oral feedback, positive effect to students, and consequences of none of oral feedback. Mostly, the students perceived positively to oral feedback. Some students found felt sensitive to oral feedback. Nevertheless, they still realized to its positive effect on the result of their work or performance.


Teachers’ oral feedback, EFL classroom interaction

Full Text:



Acheson, K. A., & Gall, M. D. 1980. Techniques in the Clinical Supervision of Teachers: Perspectives and In-service Applications. New York: Longman.

Al-Fahdi, H. M. 2006. English Language Teachers’ Use of Oral Feedback. In S. Borg (Ed.), Classroom Research in English Language Teaching in Oman. Sultanate of Oman: Ministry of Education.

Black, P. & William, D. 1998. Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7-74.

Brookhart, S. M. 2008. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. USA: ASCD.

Cowie, B. 2005. Pupil Commentary on Assessment for Learning. The Curriculum Journal, 16(2), 137-151.

Cullen, R. 2002. Supportive Teacher Talk: The Importance of the F-Move. ELT Journal, 56(2), 117-127.

Ellis, R. 2006. Researching the Effects of Form-Focussed Instruction on L2 Acquisition. AILA Review, 19(1), 18-41.

Ellis, R. 2009. Corrective Feedback and Teacher Development. L2 Journal, 1(1), 3-18.

Gamlem, S. M. & Smith, K. 2013. Student Perceptions of Classroom Feedback. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 20(2), 150-169.

Garcia, A. L. 2005. The Effect of Teacher Feedback on EFL Learners’ Functional Production in Classroom Discourse, (Online), (http://www.uv.es/anglogermanica/2005/llinares.pdf, Accessed on 9th August 2016).

Hargreaves, E., McCallum, B. & Gipps, C. 2000. Teacher Feedback Strategies in Primary Classrooms-New Evidence. In S. w (Ed.), Feedback for Learning. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. 2007. The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.

Ikeda, N. 2010. An Investigation of Teacher’s Oral Feedback Move: Elaboration on Long’s Model of the Decision Making Process. Sophia TESOL, 3.

King, P. E., Schrodt, P. & Weisel, J. J. 2009. The Instructional Feedback Orientation Scale: Conceptualizing and Validating a New Measure for Assessing Perceptions of Instructional Feedback. Communication Education, 58(2), 235-261.

Kluger, A. N. & DeNisi, A. 1996. The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory. Psychological Bulleting, 119(2), 254-284.

Lee, l. 2008. Student Reactions to Teacher Feedback in Two Hong Kong Secondary Classrooms. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17(3), 144-164.

Lorincz, K. 2014. L2 Learner Perceptions of Interactional Feedback. Linguistic Portfolios, 3(10), 98-124.

Lyster, R. & Ranta, L. 1997. Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake: Negotiation of Form in Communicative Classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37-66.

Mackey, A., Gass, S. & McDonough, K. 2000. How Do Learners Perceive Interactional Feedback. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22(4), 471-497.

Mackiewicz, J. & Thompson, I. 2013. Motivational Scaffolding, Politeness, and Writing Center Tutoring. The Writing Center Journal, 33(1), 38-73.

Maolida, E. H. 2013. A Descriptive Study of Teacher’s Oral Feedback in an ESL Young Learner Classroom in Indonesia. k@ta, 15(2), 117-124.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M. & Saldaña, J. 2014. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook (3 ed.). USA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Noor, N. M., Aman, I., Mustaffa, R. & Seong, T. K., 2010. Teacher’s Verbal Feedback on Students’ Response: A Malaysian ESL Classroom Discourse Analysis. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(C), 398-405.

Permatasari, V. 2016. Corrective Feedback as a Device to Remedy Students’ Mispronunciation: A Case Study with Interpersonal Communication Perspective. Unpublished Thesis. Makassar: State University of Makassar.

Pfanner, N. I. 2015. Teacher Corrective Oral Feedback in the Classroom. Journal of Language and Education, 1(2). 46-55.

Pinto, J. & Santos, L. 2008. The Teacher’s Oral feedback and Learning. Paper presented at the International Congress on Mathematical Education, Mexico, 6th-3rd July.

Ran, Q. & Danli, L. 2016. Teachers’ Feedback on Students’ Performance in a Secondary EFL Classroom. Proceedings of ClaSIC (242-254). Singapore: NUC Centre.

Sinclair, J. & Coulthard, M. 1975. Towards an Analysis of Discourse: The English Used by Teachers and Pupils. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Syam, A. 2015. English Teachers’ Use of Corrective Feedback and the Effect on Students’ Uptake at Senior Secondary School Level in Indonesian Context. Unpublished Thesis. Makassar: State University of Makassar.

Tharawoot, Y. 2010. Analysis of Teacher Verbal Feedback in a Thai Postgraduate Classroom, (Online), (http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/696521/1/Yaoware_Tharawoot_23_11_09.pdf, Accessed on 9th August 2016).

Tunstall, P. & Gipps, C. 1996. Teacher Feedback to Young Children in Formative Assessment: A Typology. British Educational Research Journal, 22(4), 389-404.

Voerman, L., Meijer, P. C., Korthage, F. A. J. & Simons, R. J. 2012. Types and Frequencies of Feedback Interventions in Classroom Interaction in Secondary Education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1107-1115.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 7161 times | PDF view : 742 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.








ELT Worldwide: Journal of English Language Teaching

English Language Education Graduate Program, Universitas Negeri Makassar.


Jalan Bonto Langkasa, Banta-Bantaeng, Rappocini, Banta-Bantaeng, Kec. Rappocini, Kota Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan 90222.

E-Mail: elt.worldwide@unm.ac.id

e-ISSN: 2503-2291

View My Stats

Creative Commons License
ELT Worlwide is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.