Development of subjective well-being inventory in schools using the RASCH model

Humairah Azzahrah(1*), Ahman Ahman(2), Nur Fadhilah Umar(3),

(1) Indonesia University of Education
(2) Indonesia University of Education
(3) The State University of Makassa
(*) Corresponding Author



This study aims to develop an inventory to measure subjective well-being among high school (SMA) and vocational high school (SMK) students in Indonesia. Using Item Response Theory (IRT with the Rasch model and Winstep software, it adopts a mixed methods design, specifically an exploratory sequential approach. Purposive sampling selects 350 participants from 16 schools in West Java, Sulawesi, and Sumatra. The inventory comprises 60 statement items across three components: pleasant affect, unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction, totaling 16 indicators. Modified Likert scales assess each item. Validation involves validators expert guidance counseling, and Rasch modeling analysis covering item fit, dimensionality, and reliability. The research findings indicate that the development of the Indonesian version of the subjective well-being inventory for high school/vocational high school students using the Rasch modeling approach has successfully produced a valid and reliable measurement tool. The analysis results show that this inventory meets the criteria for item fit, inventory dimensionality, and person and item reliability


development inventory; subjective well-being;RASCH model

Full Text:



Andrich, D. (1988). Rasch models for measurement (Issue 68). Sage.

Andrich, D., & Marais, I. (2019). A course in Rasch measurement theory. Measuring in the Educational, Social and Health Sciences, 41.

Astutik, E., Sebayang, S. K., Puspikawati, S. I., Tama, T. D., & Dewi, D. M. S. K. (2020). Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Students in Newly Established Remote University Campus in Indonesia. Malaysian Journal of Medicine & Health Sciences, 16(1).

Borsa, J. C., Damásio, B. F., & Bandeira, D. R. (2012). Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of psychological instruments: Some considerations. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 22, 423–432.

Bortes, C., Ragnarsson, S., Strandh, M., & Petersen, S. (2021). The bidirectional relationship between subjective well-being and academic achievement in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(5), 992–1002.

Calleja, N., Mason, T. A., & Pérez, O. G. (2022). Subjective Well-Being Scale, short version (EBS-8): Revalidation, measurement invariance and Item Response Theory. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 25(1), 203.

Cantó-Cerdán, M., Cacho-Martínez, P., Lara-Lacárcel, F., & García-Muñoz, Á. (2021). Rasch analysis for development and reduction of Symptom Questionnaire for Visual Dysfunctions (SQVD). Scientific Reports, 11(1), 14855.

Creswell, J. W. (2021). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

De Neve, J.-E., & Sachs, J. D. (2020). The SDGs and human well-being: A global analysis of synergies, trade-offs, and regional differences. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15113.

Dias-Viana, J. L., & Noronha, A. P. P. (2022). Validity evidence for the School Subjective Well-Being Scale. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 39, e200220.

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542.

Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Oishi, S. (2018). Advances and open questions in the science of subjective well-being. Collabra: Psychology, 4(1), 15.

Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2013). Item response theory. Psychology Press.

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Pearson.

Houser, R. A. (2019). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Sage Publications.

Hurlock, E. B. (1949). Adolescent development.

Maechel, L., Steinmayr, R., Christiansen, H., & Wirthwein, L. (2023). On the association between students’(domain-specific) subjective well-being and academic achievement—disentangling mixed findings. Current Psychology, 42(35), 30825–30839.

Marquez, J., & Long, E. (2021). A global decline in adolescents’ subjective well-being: A comparative study exploring patterns of change in the life satisfaction of 15-year-old students in 46 countries. Child Indicators Research, 14(3), 1251–1292.

Pontin, E., Schwannauer, M., Tai, S., & Kinderman, P. (2013). A UK validation of a general measure of subjective well-being: the modified BBC subjective well-being scale (BBC-SWB). Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11, 1–9.

Prasetyawati, W., Rifameutia, T., Gillies, R., & Newcombe, P. (2021). The Adaptation of a Brief Adolescent Subjective Well-Being in School Scale (BASWBSS), the Student Subjective Well-Being Scale in the Indonesian Context. ANIMA: Indonesian Psychological Journal, 36(2), 184–203.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. (Vol. 55, Issue 1). American Psychological Association.

Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2014). Handbook of positive emotions. In Choice Reviews Online (Vol. 52, Issue 03).

Steinmayr, R., Heyder, A., Naumburg, C., Michels, J., & Wirthwein, L. (2018). School-related and individual predictors of subjective well-being and academic achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 360884.

Suldo, S. M., & Shaffer, E. J. (2008). Looking beyond psychopathology: The dual-factor model of mental health in youth. School Psychology Review, 37(1), 52–68.

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2015). Aplikasi pemodelan rasch pada assessment pendidikan. Trim komunikata.

Tian, L., Wang, D., & Huebner, E. S. (2015). Development and validation of the brief adolescents’ subjective well-being in school scale (BASWBSS). Social Indicators Research, 120, 615–634.

Wang, S., Zhao, S., Guo, Y., Huang, C., Zhang, P., She, L., Xiang, B., Zeng, J., Zhou, F., & Xie, X. (2023). A network analysis of subjective well-being in Chinese high school students. BMC Public Health, 23(1), 1249.

Wu, Y.-J., & Lee, J. (2022). The most salient global predictors of adolescents’ subjective Well-Being: Parental support, peer support, and anxiety. Child Indicators Research, 15(5), 1601–1629.

Zanon, C., Hutz, C. S., Yoo, H., & Hambleton, R. K. (2016). An application of item response theory to psychological test development. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 29(0), 18.

Zhou, D., Liu, S., Zhou, H., Liu, J., & Ma, Y. (2023). The association among teacher-student relationship, subjective well-being, and academic achievement: Evidence from Chinese fourth graders and eighth graders. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1097094.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 25 times | PDF view : 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Humairah Azzahrah, Ahman Ahman, Nur Fadhilah Umar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Published by:

Guidance and Counseling Study Program,

Graduate Program of Universitas Negeri Makassar

Address : Jalan Bonto Langkasa Gunungsari Baru Makassar,

90222 .Kampus PPs UNM Makassar, Building AD Room 306

Lt II Study Program BK, Indonesia

Email: [email protected]

p-ISSN : 2443-2202

e-ISSN : 2477-2518

JPPK UNM Indexed by:


Lisensi Creative Commons
JPPK UNM is licensed under a
Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-NonKomersial-TanpaTurunan 4.0 Internasional.


View JPPK UNM My Stats