Ethics And Legal Issues In Online Counseling Services: Counseling Principles Analysis

Zadrian Ardi(1*), M. Rido Mulia Putra(2), Ifdil Ifdil(3),

(1) Universitas Negeri Padang
(2) Universitas Andalas
(3) Universitas Negeri Padang
(*) Corresponding Author



Challenges of living and dynamics modern society has spawned complex problems experienced by individuals. Counseling process with a variety formats attempt to develop the optimization of the individual. The development of the counseling process format formed a variety of alternative media that are capable to accommodating the communication process between the counselor and the client. The Media creates an atmosphere of counseling in long-distance (distance) condition has some advantages as well as disadvantages. One of the distance counseling forms is counseling online. With one form of service with fairly new developments, online counseling has had a significant positive impact on easing the client's problems. But on the other hand, this service also has some weaknesses that must be understood and controlled, especially for a counselor. This manuscript uses a documentary study approach on ethical conditions, counseling issues in Indonesia and discusses some of the ethical issues that must be understood by counselors during the process of online counseling in keeping some of the important principles in the counseling process.


Online counseling; Ethics and Legal Issues; Principle in Online Counseling.

Full Text:



Al-Adwan, A., Al-Adwan, A., & Smedley, J. (2013). Exploring students acceptance of e-learning using Technology Acceptance Model in Jordanian universities. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 9(2), 4.

Ardi, Z. (2014). Cita-cita Perkerjaan dan Pilihan Peminatan Siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri di Sumatera Barat. Cita-Cita Perkerjaan Dan Pilihan Peminatan Siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri Di Sumatera Barat.

Ardi, Z., Ibrahim, Y., & Said, A. (2012). Capaian Tugas Perkembangan Sosial Siswa dengan Kelompok Teman Sebaya dan Implikasinya terhadap Program Pelayanan Bimbingan dan Konseling. Konselor, 1(1).

Ardi, Z., & Yendi, F. M. (2013). Konseling Online: Sebuah Pendekatan Teknologi Dalam Pelayanan Konseling. Jurnal Konseling Dan Pendidikan, 1(1), 1–5.

Ardi, Z., & Yendi, F. M. (2017). Students Attitude Towards LGBTQ; the Future Counselor Challenges. Jurnal Konseling Dan Pendidikan, 5(2), 74–79.

Arkorful, V., & Abaidoo, N. (2015). The role of e-learning, advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in higher education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 12(1), 29–42.

Avery, M., Meng, G., & Mills, S. (2014). Two internet-based approaches to promoting HIV counselling and testing for MSM in China. Digit Cult Educ, 6, 216–229.

Bell, S., Douce, C., Caeiro, S., Teixeira, A., Martín-Aranda, R., & Otto, D. (2017). Sustainability and distance learning: a diverse European experience? Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 32(2), 95–102.

Benis, K., & Ferrão, P. (2017). Potential mitigation of the environmental impacts of food systems through urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA)–a life cycle assessment approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 784–795.

Blumer, M. L. C., Hertlein, K. M., Smith, J. M., & Allen, H. (2014). How many bytes does it take? A content analysis of cyber issues in couple and family therapy journals. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 40(1), 34–48.

Botta, A., De Donato, W., Persico, V., & Pescapé, A. (2016). Integration of cloud computing and internet of things: a survey. Future Generation Computer Systems, 56, 684–700.

Boulesteix, A.-L. (2015). Ten simple rules for reducing overoptimistic reporting in methodological computational research. PLoS Computational Biology, 11(4), e1004191.

Bradley, D., Russell, D., Ferguson, I., Isaacs, J., MacLeod, A., & White, R. (2015). The Internet of Things–The future or the end of mechatronics. Mechatronics, 27, 57–74.

Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (2017). The Social Life of Information: Updated, with a New Preface. Harvard Business Review Press.

Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2014). The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. WW Norton & Company.

Daharnis, D., & Ardi, Z. (2016). The Compatibility Student Choice of University Majoring; A Preliminary Studies. GUIDENA: Journal of Guidance and Counseling, Psychology, and Education, 6(1), 101–109.

Dana, R. H. (2013). Personality Assessment and the Cultural Self: Ernie and Eric Contexts. Teaching and Learning Personality Assessment, 325.

Das, A., & Faxvaag, A. (2014). What influences patient participation in an online forum for weight loss surgery? A qualitative case study. Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 3(1).

De Choudhury, M., & De, S. (2014). Mental Health Discourse on reddit: Self-Disclosure, Social Support, and Anonymity. In ICWSM.

Dew, K., Scott, A., & Kirkman, A. (2016). Health Care Work and Everyday Health Work. In Social, Political and Cultural Dimensions of Health (pp. 81–93). Springer.

Draguns, J. G. (2013). Cross-cultural counseling and psychotherapy: History, issues, current status. Cross-Cultural Counseling and Psychotherapy: Pergamon General Psychology Series, 93, 1.

Gackenbach, J. (2011). Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal implications. Academic Press.

Ginis, K. A. M., Evans, M. B., Mortenson, W. Ben, & Noreau, L. (2017). Broadening the conceptualization of participation of persons with physical disabilities: a configurative review and recommendations. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98(2), 395–402.

Guest, R., Tran, Y., Gopinath, B., Cameron, I. D., & Craig, A. (2016). Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: A systematic review of preventative interventions. Injury, 47(11), 2415–2423.

Hertlein, K. M., Blumer, M. L. C., & Smith, J. M. (2014). Marriage and family therapists’ use and comfort with online communication with clients. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36(1), 58–69.

Ifdil, I., Ardi, Z., & Yendi, F. M. (2012). Resilience Post-Disaster of Students SMA Negeri in Padang. Konselor, 1(1).

Kanani, K., & Regehr, C. (2003). Clinical, ethical, and legal issues in e-therapy. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 84(2), 155–162.

Kawabata, A., & Tamura, T. (2007). Online‐Religion in Japan: Websites and Religious Counseling from a Comparative Cross‐Cultural Perspective. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 12(3), 999–1019.

Keengwe, J., & Bhargava, M. (2014). Mobile learning and integration of mobile technologies in education. Education and Information Technologies, 19(4), 737–746.

Kim, B. S. K., & Park, Y. S. (2015). Communication styles, cultural values, and counseling effectiveness with Asian Americans. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93(3), 269–279.

Kraus, R., Stricker, G., & Speyer, C. (2010). Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals. Academic Press.

Kuo, Y.-C., Walker, A. E., Belland, B. R., Schroder, K. E. E., & Kuo, Y.-T. (2014). A case study of integrating Interwise: Interaction, internet self-efficacy, and satisfaction in synchronous online learning environments. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(1).

Lobelo, F., Kelli, H. M., Tejedor, S. C., Pratt, M., McConnell, M. V, Martin, S. S., & Welk, G. J. (2016). The wild wild west: A framework to integrate mhealth software applications and wearables to support physical activity assessment, counseling and interventions for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 58(6), 584–594.

Lopez, A. (2014). Social work, technology, and ethical practices: A review and evaluation of the National Association of Social Workers’ Technology Standards. Social Work in Health Care, 53(9), 815–833.

Lu, L.-C., Chang, H.-H., & Yu, S.-T. (2013). Online shoppers’ perceptions of e-retailers’ ethics, cultural orientation, and loyalty: an exploratory study in Taiwan. Internet Research, 23(1), 47–68.

Margam, M., & Dar, S. A. (2017). Mobile Information Services and Initiatives in University Libraries: A New Way of Delivering Information. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 37(2), 109.

McLeod, J. (2013). An introduction to counselling. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Mevissen, F. E. F., Eiling, E., Bos, A. E. R., Tempert, B., Mientjes, M., & Schaalma, H. P. (2012). Evaluation of the Dutch AIDS STI information helpline: differential outcomes of telephone versus online counseling. Patient Education and Counseling, 88(2), 218–23.

Migone, P. (2013). Psychoanalysis on the Internet: A discussion of its theoretical implications for both online and offline therapeutic technique. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 30(2), 281.

Mulhearn, T. J., Steele, L. M., Watts, L. L., Medeiros, K. E., Mumford, M. D., & Connelly, S. (2017). Review of instructional approaches in ethics education. Science and Engineering Ethics, 23(3), 883–912.

Musiat, P., Goldstone, P., & Tarrier, N. (2014). Understanding the acceptability of e-mental health-attitudes and expectations towards computerised self-help treatments for mental health problems. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 109.

Naym, J., & Hossain, M. A. (2016). Does Investment in Information and Communication Technology Lead to Higher Economic Growth: Evidence from Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(6), 302.

Oude Wesselink, S. F., Lingsma, H. F., Reulings, P. G. J., Wentzel, H. R., Erasmus, V., Robben, P. B. M., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2014). Does government supervision improve stop-smoking counseling in midwifery practices? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 17(5), 572–579.

Perera, C., Liu, C. H., & Jayawardena, S. (2015). The emerging internet of things marketplace from an industrial perspective: A survey. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 3(4), 585–598.

Peterson, M. R., & Beck, R. L. (2003). E-mail as an adjunctive tool in psychotherapy: response and responsibility. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 57(2).

Pitt, R., Theodoros, D., Hill, A. J., Rodriguez, A. D., & Russell, T. (2017). The feasibility of delivering constraint-induced language therapy via the Internet. DIGITAL HEALTH, 3, 2055207617718767.

Prayitno. (2009). Wawasan Profesional Konseling. Padang: UNP Padang.

Prayitno. (2012). Jenis Layanan dan Kegiatan Pendukung Konseling. Padang: UNP Padang.

Pruthi, S., Stange, K. J., Malagrino, G. D., Chawla, K. S., LaRusso, N. F., & Kaur, J. S. (2013). Successful implementation of a telemedicine-based counseling program for high-risk patients with breast cancer. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 88, pp. 68–73). Elsevier.

Ratts, M. J., Singh, A. A., Nassar-McMillan, S., Butler, S. K., McCullough, J. R., & Hipolito-Delgado, C. (2015). Multicultural and social justice counseling competencies. AMCD: Alexandria, VA.

Regev, S., Hadas-Lidor, N., & Rosenberg, L. (2016). The Internet and Computer User Profile: a questionnaire for determining intervention targets in occupational therapy at mental health vocational centers. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 11(6), 484–492.

Richards, D., & Viganó, N. (2013). Online counseling: A narrative and critical review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(9), 994–1011.

Robinson, N., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan Jr, D. M. (2015). Crying as communication in psychotherapy: The influence of client and therapist attachment dimensions and client attachment to therapist on amount and type of crying. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(3), 379.

Rodda, S., Lubman, D. I., Dowling, N. A., Bough, A., & Jackson, A. C. (2013). Web-based counseling for problem gambling: exploring motivations and recommendations. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(5).

Sandoval-Almazan, R., & Gil-Garcia, J. R. (2014). Towards cyberactivism 2.0? Understanding the use of social media and other information technologies for political activism and social movements. Government Information Quarterly, 31(3), 365–378.

Sarrab, M., Elbasir, M., & Alnaeli, S. (2016). Towards a quality model of technical aspects for mobile learning services: An empirical investigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 100–112.

Seligman, L., & Reichenberg, L. W. (2015). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy with My Counseling Lab with Video Enhanced.

Shaw, H. E., & Shaw, S. F. (2006). Critical Ethical Issues in Online Counseling: Assessing Current Practices With an Ethical Intent Checklist. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84(1), 41–53.

Shiller, I. (2009). Online counselling: A review of the literature. East Metro Youth Services, 11, 103.

Simpson, J. E. (2016). A divergence of opinion: How those involved in child and family social work are responding to the challenges of the Internet and social media. Child & Family Social Work, 21(1), 94–102.

Simpson, S. G., & Reid, C. L. (2014). Therapeutic alliance in videoconferencing psychotherapy: A review. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 22(6), 280–299.

Snyder, M. E., Frail, C. K., Jaynes, H., Pater, K. S., & Zillich, A. J. (2014). Predictors of Medication‐Related Problems among Medicaid Patients Participating in a Pharmacist‐Provided Telephonic Medication Therapy Management Program. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 34(10), 1022–1032.

Stevens, T. B., Richmond, N. L., Pereira, G. F., Shenvi, C. L., & Platts‐Mills, T. F. (2014). Prevalence of nonmedical problems among older adults presenting to the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine, 21(6), 651–658.

Sujarwoto, S., & Tampubolon, G. (2016). Spatial inequality and the Internet divide in Indonesia 2010–2012. Telecommunications Policy, 40(7), 602–616.

Tao, F., Wang, Y., Zuo, Y., Yang, H., & Zhang, M. (2016). Internet of Things in product life-cycle energy management. Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 1, 26–39.

Tatto, M. T. (2006). Education reform and the global regulation of teachers’ education, development and work: A cross-cultural analysis. International Journal of Educational Research, 45(4), 231–241.

Tomer, C. (2016). Information technology standards for libraries. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science.

Trossen, D., Sathiaseelan, A., & Ott, J. (2016). Towards an information centric network architecture for universal internet access. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 46(1), 44–49.

Vorderer, P., Krömer, N., & Schneider, F. M. (2016). Permanently online–Permanently connected: Explorations into university students’ use of social media and mobile smart devices. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 694–703.

Welfel, E. R. (2015). Ethics in counseling & psychotherapy. Cengage Learning.

Wentzel, J., van der Vaart, R., Bohlmeijer, E. T., & van Gemert-Pijnen, J. E. W. C. (2016). Mixing online and face-to-face therapy: how to benefit from blended care in mental health care. JMIR Mental Health, 3(1).

Witt, K. J., Oliver, M., & McNichols, C. (2016). Counseling via avatar: professional practice in virtual worlds. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 38(3), 218–236.

Yendi, F. M., Ardi, Z., & Ifdil, I. (2014). Counseling Services for Women in Marriage Age. Jurnal Konseling Dan Pendidikan, 2(3), 31–36.

Zamani, Z. A., Nasir, R., & Yusooff, F. (2010). Perceptions towards online counseling among counselors in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 585–589.

Zhong, N., Ma, J., Huang, R., Liu, J., Yao, Y., Zhang, Y., & Chen, J. (2016). Research challenges and perspectives on Wisdom Web of Things (W2T). In Wisdom Web of Things (pp. 3–26). Springer.

Ziomek-Daigle, J., & Curtis, R. (2017). Future Directions and Trends in Counseling Children and Adolescents. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Working in School and Clinical Mental Health Settings, 478.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 5970 times | PDF view : 1142 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Psikologi Pendidikan dan Konseling: Jurnal Kajian Psikologi Pendidikan dan Bimbingan Konseling

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Published by:

Guidance and Counseling Study Program,

Graduate Program of Universitas Negeri Makassar

Address : Jalan Bonto Langkasa Gunungsari Baru Makassar,

90222 .Kampus PPs UNM Makassar, Building AD Room 306

Lt II Study Program BK, Indonesia


p-ISSN : 2443-2202

e-ISSN : 2477-2518

JPPK UNM Indexed by:


Lisensi Creative Commons
JPPK UNM is licensed under a
Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-NonKomersial-TanpaTurunan 4.0 Internasional.


View JPPK UNM My Stats