Career decision-making difficulties among socioeconomically disadvantaged students (Bidikmisi Students)

Nadhira Ivana Anshari(1*), Fitriani Yustikasari Lubis(2), Puspita Adhi Kusuma Wijayanti(3),

(1) Universitas Padjadjaran
(2) Padjadjaran University
(3) Padjadjaran University
(*) Corresponding Author



This study aims to explore the career decision-making difficulties (CDMD) of Bidikmisi students, especially the factors that may cause difficulties, such as parents’ education level and students’ gender. The measuring instrument used was Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire. Random cluster sampling was conducted, and there were 154 Unpad students from four selected faculties.  The CDMD data were analyzed using descriptive and differential tests. The results of the study showed that the majority of Bidikmisi students had moderate CDMD, with the highest difficulty in the Lack of Readiness category.  There was a significant difference in CDMD based on parents’ education level in which individuals with parents with secondary and college levels of education had higher CDMD. There was no significant difference between male and female students regarding CDMD. These findings highlight the importance of career guidance for Bidikmisi students to make appropriate career decisions, mainly those with parents from specific educational backgrounds


career decision-making difficulties; bidikmisi students; socioeconomically disadvantaged

Full Text:



Albien, A., & Naidoo, T. (2017). Deconstructing Career Myths and Cultural Stereotypes in a Context Of Low Resourced Township Communities. South African Journal of Education. 37. 1-12. 10.15700/saje.v37n4a1476.

Albion, M. (2000). Career decision-making Difficulties of Adolescent Boys and Girls. Australian Journal of Career Development, 9 (2). pp. 14-19. ISSN 1038-4162

Amir, T., Gati, I., & Kleiman, T. (2008). Understanding and Interpreting Career Decision-Making Difficulties. Journal of Career Assessment, 16(3), 281–309. doi:10.1177/1069072708317367

Aries, E., & Seider, M. (2007). The role of social class in the formation of identity A study of public and elite private college students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 147(2), 137-157.

Arulmani, G. (2001). Career Planning Orientations of Disadvantaged High School Boys: A Study of Socioeconomic and Social Cognitive Variables. Jurnal Psikologi. 27, pp. 7-17.

Bacanli, F. (2016). Career decision-making difficulties of Turkish adolescents. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 16(2), 233-250.

Bornstein, M., & Bradley, R. (2003). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Darmasaputro, A., & Gunawan, W. (2018). Hubungan Efikasi Diri Pengambilan Keputusan Karier dan Pengambilan Keputusan Karier pada Siswa SMA. Jurnal Psikologi. 14. 1. 10.24014/jp.v14i1.5004.

Faisal, I., (2014). The Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Status on Their Involvement at Home. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(5): 146-154

Fatimah, S. (2020). Comparison of Career Decision Difficulties: Reviewed Based On Gender and Its Affecting Aspects. JOMSIGN: Journal of Multicultural Studies in Guidance and Counseling, 4(2), 18-31.

Gati, I., Krausz, M., & Osipow, S. H. (1996). A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision-making. Journal of counseling psychology, 43(4), 510.

Gati, I., Asulin-Peretz, L., & Fisher, A. (2011). Emotional and Personality-Related Career Decision-Making Difficulties. The Counseling Psychologist, 40(1), 6–27. doi:10.1177/0011000011398726

Gati, I., & Levin, N. (2014). Counseling for career decision‐making difficulties: Measures and methods. The Career Development Quarterly, 62(2), 98-113.

Guay, F., Senecal, C., Gauthier, L, & Fernet, C. (2003). Predicting Career Indecision: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(2), 165–177.

Guryan, J., Hurst, E., & Kearney, M. (2008). Parental Education and Parental Time With Children. National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, NBER Working Papers. 22. 10.1257/jep.22.3.23.

Hsieh, H., & Huang, J. (2014). The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Proactive Personality on Career Decision Self-Efficacy. The Career Development Quarterly, 62(1), 29–43. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2014.00068.x

Istiqomah, I., Genjik, B., & Bambang, B. U. (2016). Pengaruh Pendapatan Orang Tua terhadap Minat Siswa Melanjutkan Pendidikan ke Perguruan Tinggi. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, 5(5)

Jayanti, I. (2018). Pengembangan Instrumen Career Decision Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ).

Jung, J., & Young, M. (2019). The occupational/career decision-making processes of intellectually gifted adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds: A mixed methods perspective. Gifted Child Quarterly, 63(1), 36-57.

Kenny, M. E., Gualdron, L., Scanlon, D., Sparks, E., Blustein, D. L., & Jernigan, M. (2007). Urban adolescents’ constructions of supports and barriers to educational and career attainment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54 (3), 336.

Lindstrom, L., Beno, C., Gee, K., & Hirano, K. (2020). Career and College Readiness for Underserved Youth: Educator and Youth Perspectives. Youth & Society, 0044118X2097700.

Lopez, F. G., & Andrews, S. (1987). Career indecision – A family systems perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65(6), 304–307.

Mbagwu, M., & Ajaegbu, O., (2016). Influence of Parents' Educational Background on Career Choice of Teenagers Among Senior Secondary School Students in Owerri. Edorium Journal of Psychology, 2: 14-20. doi:10.5348/P13-2016-9-OA-3

Mufidah, A. (2017). Hubungan antara dukungan sosial terhadap resiliensi mahasiswa bidikmisi dengan medias efikasi diri. Jurnal Sains Psikologi, 6(2), 68-74.

Murry, R. (2017). Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Career decision-making of Undergraduate Emerging Adults.

Noreen, G., & Khalid, H. (2012). Gender empowerment through women’s higher education: Opportunities and possibilities. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 6(1), 50-60.

Shea, M., Ma, P. W. W., & Yeh, C. J. (2007). Development of a culturally specific career exploration group for urban Chinese immigrant youth. The Career Development Quarterly, 56 (1), 62-73.

Sheehy-Skeffington, J., & Rea, J. (2017). How poverty affects people's decision-making processes (pp. 1-73). York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Slaten, C. D., & Baskin, T. W. (2014). Examining the impact of peer and family belongingness on the career decision-making difficulties of young adults: A path analytic approach. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(1), 59-7

Udayar, S., Levin, N., Lipshits-Braziler, Y., Rochat, S., Di Fabio, A., Gati, I., ... & Rossier, J. (2020). Difficulties in career decision-making and self-evaluations: A meta-analysis. Journal of Career Assessment, 28(4), 608-635.

Wood, S., & Smith, C. (2020). Effective Strategies for Career Counseling of Gifted Learners From Low-Income Backgrounds. Unlocking potential: Identifying and serving gifted students from low-income households. Prufrock Press Inc.

Workman, J. L. (2015). Parental influence on exploratory students' college choice, major, and career decision-making. College Student Journal, 49(1), 23-30.

Zhou, D., & Santos, A. (2007). Career decision-making difficulties of British and Chinese international university students. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 35(2), 219–235. doi:10.1080/0306988070125668

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 820 times | PDF view : 3 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nadhira Ivana Anshari; Fitriani Yustikasari Lubis; Puspita Adhi Kusuma Wijayanti

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Published by:

Guidance and Counseling Study Program,

Graduate Program of Universitas Negeri Makassar

Address : Jalan Bonto Langkasa Gunungsari Baru Makassar,

90222 .Kampus PPs UNM Makassar, Building AD Room 306

Lt II Study Program BK, Indonesia

Email: [email protected]

p-ISSN : 2443-2202

e-ISSN : 2477-2518

JPPK UNM Indexed by:


Lisensi Creative Commons
JPPK UNM is licensed under a
Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-NonKomersial-TanpaTurunan 4.0 Internasional.


View JPPK UNM My Stats