An analysis of translation techniques and ideology in hikayat hang tuah

Farida Repelita Waty Kembaren(1*), Mardiah Mawar Kembaren(2),

(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims to (1) identify the translation techniques in translating Hikayat Hang Tuah from Malay into English, (2) to see the most dominant techniques in translating Hikayat Hang Tuah, and (3) to describe the translators’ ideology in translating Malaysian cultural terms into English. This research is descriptive translation studies oriented to translation product (Toury, 1995). The 50 data selected from Hikayat Hang Tuah (1966) in Malay language and its English version translated by Muhammad Haji Salleh (2016). The data are collected by using purposive sampling technique and document analysis (Miles & Huberman, 2014). After analyzing the translation techniques (Molina and Albir, 2002), it shows that; there are 10 translation techniques applied; Amplification (80%), Reduction (76%), Adaptation (72%), Modulation (46%), Literal translation (36%), Transposition (34%), Generalization (18%), Description (16%), Discursive Creation (12%), and Borrowing (2%). The most dominant techniques are Amplification, Reduction and Adaptation. It can be concluded that the translator has domestication ideology since he adapted and replaced the cultural words with the descriptions of the words rather than borrowing the cultural terms to promote the culture. To solve the grammatical differences, the translator generalized the specific pronouns, and gave additional words to explain the specific cultural terms

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