Examining Purchase Behavior of Electric Vehicles as an Effort to Reduce Air Pollution: Theory of Planned Behavior

Amelindha Vania(1*), Ardiansyah Muhammad(2),

(1) Faculty of Economics, Universitas Islam Negeri Malang, Indonesia
(2) PT.Sinergi Riset Indonesia, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26858/jiap.v13i2.53162


Central Jakarta has increasingly bad levels of air pollution, it is recorded that Jakarta is ranked third with the worst air in the world. Purchasing an electric vehicle is one way to minimize bad air. This research uses the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to understand and predict what characteristics or variables influence the purchase of electric vehicles in Central Jakarta. The research sample consisted of 166 respondents who had purchased an electric vehicle. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM. The perception of ease of avoiding pollution influences the lack of desire to protect oneself, and the protect intention (PI) influences purchasing behavior (PB). Subjective norms (SN) and attitudes towards electric vehicle purchasing behavior (ATB) are important elements that can increase a person's desire to defend against pollution by purchasing an electric vehicle. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) challenges subjective norms and attitudes toward electric vehicle purchasing behavior. Perceived behavioral control is proven to be a solution to preventing air pollution.


Attitude Towards Behaviour; Subjective Norm; Perceived Behavioral Control; Behavioral Intention; Protect Intention; Purchase Behavior

Full Text:



Adam, D. (2020). The Effects of Physical Isolation on the Pandemic Quantified.

Ajzen, I., Joyce, N., Sheikh, S., & Cote, N. G. (2011). Knowledge and the prediction of behavior: The role of information accuracy in the theory of planned behavior. Basic and applied social psychology, 33(2), 101-117.

Aitken, R., Watkins, L., Williams, J., & Kean, A. (2020). The positive role of labeling on consumers' perceived behavioral control and intention to purchase organic food. Journal of Cleaner Production , 255 , 120334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120334

Camerini, AL, Diviani, N., Fadda, M., & Schulz, PJ (2019). Using protection motivation theory to predict intention to adhere to official MMR vaccination recommendations in Switzerland. SSM - Population Health , 7 (November 2018), 100321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2018.11.005

Carfora, V., Cavallo, C., Caso, D., Del Giudice, T., De Devitiis, B., Viscecchia, R., Nardone, G., & Cicia, G. (2019). Explaining consumer purchase behavior for organic milk: Including trust and green self-identity within the theory of planned behavior. Food Quality and Preference , 76 (September 2018), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2019.03.006

Chu, H., & Liu, S. (2021). Integrating health behavior theories to predict American's intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Patient Education and Counseling , xxxx . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2021.02.031

Chin, W. W. (1998). Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. MIS quarterly, vii-xvi.

Cooper, Simon & Endacott, Ruth & Chapman, Ysanne. (2009). Qualitative research: Specific designs for qualitative research in emergency care? . Emergency medicine journal: EMJ. 26. 773-6. 10.1136/emj.2008.071159.

Cock, Ned. (2014). Advanced Mediating Effects Tests, Multi-Group Analyses, and Measurement Model Assessments in PLS-Based SEM. International Journal of e-Collaboration. 10. 1-13. 10.4018/ijec.2014010101.

Conner, K. (2020). Face Masks in Cars, Stores, Outside: Places You’re Expected to Wear a Covering. San Francisco, CA: CNET.

Creswell, JW (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Delmas, M. and Kohli, A. (2019). Engagement with air quality information: stated versus revealed preferences. Organization & Environment, 34(3), 413-434. https://doi.org/10.1177/1086026619837690

Gholamrezai, S., Aliabadi, V., & Ataei, P. (2021). Understanding the pro-environmental behavior among green poultry farmers: Application of behavioral theories. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(11), 16100-16118.

Gao, H., Huang, S. (Sam), & Brown, G. (2017). The influence of face on Chinese tourists' gift purchase behaviour: The moderating role of the gift giver–receiver relationship. Tourism Management , 62 , 97–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.03.013

Giampietri, E., Verneau, F., Del Giudice, T., Carfora, V., & Finco, A. (2018). A Theory of Planned behaviour perspective for investigating the role of trust in consumer purchasing decision related to short food supply chains. Food Quality and Preference, 64, 160-166.

Hair, Joseph & Ringle, Christian & Sarstedt, Marko. (2013). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling: Rigorous Applications, Better Results and Higher Acceptance. Long Range Planning. 46. 1-12. 10.1016/j.lrp.2013.08.016.

Hair, J., Sarstedt, M, Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. (2014). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM): An Emerging Tool for Business Research. European Business Review. 26. 106-121. 10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128.

Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Ang, S. H., Leong, S. M., Tan, C. T., & Ho-Ming, O. (2012). Principles of marketing: an Asian perspective. Pearson/Prentice-Hall.

Kock, N. (2014). Using data labels to discover moderating effects in PLS-based structural equation modeling. International Journal of e-Collaboration (IJeC), 10(4), 1-16.

Lato, K. A., Madigan, D. J., Veit, R. R., & Thorne, L. H. (2021). Closely related gull species show contrasting foraging strategies in an urban environment. Scientific reports, 11(1), 1-10.

Lestari, P. and Haryanto, B. (2022). So2 concentration and the occurrence of acute respiratory infection in children under five. Kesmas National Public Health Journal, 17(4), 292. https://doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v17i4.6290

Lim, HR, & An, Sooyoung. (2021). Intention to purchase wellbeing food among Korean consumers: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Food Quality and Preference , 88(December 2019), 104101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104101

Malhotra, Naresh K. (2007). Marketing research: an applied orientation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Papalia, DE, Sterns, HL, Feldman, RD, Camp, CJ. (2007). Adult development and aging. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Perlman, S. (2020). Another decade, another coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(8), 760-762.

Prasetyo, YT, Castillo, AM, Salonga, LJ, Sia, JA, & Seneta, JA (2020). Factors affecting perceived effectiveness of COVID-19 prevention measures among Filipinos during Enhanced Community Quarantine in Luzon, Philippines: Integrating Protection Motivation Theory and extended Theory of Planned Behavior. International Journal of Infectious Diseases , 99 , 312–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.074

Raeissi, P., Khalilabad, T., Rezapour, A., Hashemi, S., Mousavi, A., & khodabakhshzadeh, s. (2018). Effects of air pollution on public and private health expenditures in iran: a time series study (1972-2014). Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 51(3), 140-147. https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.153

Rawat, D., Dixit, V., Gulati, S., Gulati, S., & Gulati, A. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on lifestyle behaviour: A review of studies published in India. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews , 15 (1), 331–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.12.038

Sharifirad, G., Yarmohammadi, P., Sharifabad, M. A. M., & Rahaei, Z. (2014). Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran. Journal of education and health promotion, 3.

Sugiyono. (2012). Qualitative Research Methods and R&B. Bandung: Alphabeta.

Tu, L. and Zhao, Y. (2021). Air pollution and the public perception level and self-protection demand in three cities of china: fractional grey modelling analysis. Journal of Mathematics, 2021, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4951714

Wang, Y., Liang, J., Yang, J., Ma, X., Li, X., Wu, J., Yang, G., Ren, G., & Feng, Y. (2019). Analysis of the environmental behavior of farmers for non-point source pollution control and management: An integration of the theory of planned behavior and the protection motivation theory. Journal of Environmental Management , 237 (October 2018), 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.02.070

Xia, Y., Chang, J. H., Miao, H. Z., & Wang, D. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intention to use traditional Chinese medicine: A cross-sectional study based on the theory of planned behavior. Journal of integrative medicine, 19(3), 219-225.

Xu, Z., Li, J., Shan, J., & Zhang, W. (2020). Extending the theory of planned behavior to understand residents’ coping behaviors for reducing the health risks posed by haze pollution. Environment Development and Sustainability, 23(2), 2122-2142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00666-5

Yao, L., Li, X., Zheng, R., & Zhang, Y. (2022). The impact of air pollution perception on urban settlement intentions of young talent in china. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(3), 1080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031080

Zulfikri, A. (2023). Effects of pollution and transportation on public health in jakarta. West Science Interdisciplinary Studies, 1(03), 22-26. https://doi.org/10.58812/wsis.v1i03.51

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 295 times | PDF view : 72 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Amelindha Vania, Ardiansyah Muhammad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Diterbitkan oleh:

Program Studi Ilmu Administrasi Publik

Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Makassar


JIAP Index By:


View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.