Catalysts and Challenges in Essay Writing Proficiency among College Students: Insights from Motivation, Literacy, Cognition, and Language Skills

Karolis - Anaktototy(1*), Monica Monica(2), Jusak Patty(3),

(1) Pattimura University
(2) Pattimura University
(3) Pattimura University
(*) Corresponding Author




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26858/eralingua.v8i1.61009

Abstract


Abstract. This study delves into the various factors that influence the essay writing skills of college students, including motivation, literacy, cognitive abilities, and language proficiency. A mixed-method approach was used, combining qualitative and quantitative methods. The data was collected through questionnaire surveys and interviews to analyze the impact of these factors on students' writing capabilities. The findings reveal that the majority of students find writing enjoyable, with over 90% expressing interest in essay composition. However, procrastination tendencies were observed, with 46% of students admitting to submitting essays on the last day. Furthermore, excessive instructor feedback negatively affected the motivation of more than 50% of respondents. Regarding literacy, approximately 66% of students engage in daily reading, a critical component for enhancing writing skills. A strong correlation between reading and writing was identified, as students often utilize relevant sources to support their essays. However, 75% of participants admitted to reading primarily within the confines of coursework. Cognitive capabilities played a significant role, with over 80% of students effectively planning and developing essay content. However, content comprehension proved to be challenging for 56%, affecting the coherence of their essays. Interviews revealed difficulties in paragraph development and topic selection. Language skills were deemed essential for coherent writing, with 80% of students constructing sentences adeptly and employing grammar effectively. Despite these skills, students struggled with syntax and word choice. Interviews highlighted issues with sentence construction and word selection, impacting the clarity of their messages. The research findings can potentially be implemented to design strategies, models, and learning media that focus on improving the essay writing proficiency of college students.

Keywords: Motivation, Literacy, Cognitive Abilities, Language Skills, Essay Writing


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam, N., Abid, & Bantulu, Y. (2021). Challenges in teaching English writing skills: Lessons learnt from Indonesian high school English language teachers. Jambura Journal of English Teaching and Literature, Vol. 2 (1), 12-21.

Ahmed, S., & Ahasan, N. (2015). Dealing with Writing Deficiencies at Tertiary Level. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 208, 60-67.

Alghammas, A., & Alhuwaydi, A. (2020). The Weakeness of English Writing Skills among Undergraduate Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University: A Perspective of English Faculty. The Asian ESP Journal, 297-308. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3621267.

Alzubi, A. A. F., & Nazim, M. (2024). Students' intrinsic motivation in EFL academic writing: Topic-based interest in focus. Heliyon, 10(1).

Anaktototy, K. (2023). Interplaying Reading and Writing in ESL/EFL: A Literature Review of Strategies for Indonesian Teachers. Elsya : Journal of English Language Studies.Vol.5, No.1, 2023, pp. 107-121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31849/elsya.v51/9994

Apsari, Y. (2018). Reflective reading journal in teaching writing. Indonesian EFL Journal, 4(2), 39-47. doi: 10.25134/ieflj.v4i2.1374.

Azari, J. S., Livarjani, S., & Azmoodeh, M. (2024). Comparing the Effectiveness of Study Methods and Time Management Training on Academic Self-Regulation Among Male and Female Students. Journal of Assessment and Research in Applied Counseling (JARAC), 6(2), 95-104.

Banat, M. (2023). Innovative Pathways to Proficient Writing: Examining Exploratory Practice's Effects. TESOL and Technology Studies, 4(1), 60-70.

Bouchefira, M. (2015). Writing Deficiency among EFL University Students: Causes and Solutions The Case of English LMD Students at Djilali Liabes University. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, Vol. 6 (4), 92-102. DOI: 10.7575/aiac.alls.v.6n.4p.92.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of Language. Fourth Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Bui, H. P., Nguyen, L. T., & Nguyen, T. V. (2023). An investigation into EFL pre-service teachers’ academic writing strategies. Heliyon, 9(3).

Cahyono, B, Y., & Rahayu, T. (2020) EFL Students' Motivation in Writing, Writing Proficiency, and Gender. TEFLIN Journal, Vol. 31 No. 2 (2020), DOI: https://doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal,v31i2/162-180

Camacho A., Alves R.A., De Smedt F., Van Keer H., Boscolo P. (2021). Relations among motivation, behaviour, and performance in writing: A multiple-group structural equation modeling study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 1456–1480.

Castells, N., Minguela, M., & Nadal, E. (2023). Writing a synthesis versus reading: strategies involved and impact on comprehension. Reading and Writing, 36(4), 849-880

Darancik, Y. (2018). Students' Views on Language Skills in Foreign Language Teaching. International Education Studies, Vol. 11 (7), 166-178. DOI: 10.5539/ies.v11n7p166.

Dema, T. (2022). Factors affecting the writing skills of students: A case of a higher secondary school. Vietnam Journal of Educational Sciences. Volume 18, Issue 4, December 2022. https://doi.org/10.15625/2615-8957/22210704

Dewi, E. T., Daud, B., & Chairina. (2017). The Teacher's Efforts in Solving Students' Writing Problems. Research in English and Education (READ), Vol. 2 (4), 91-98.

Durga, V. S., & Rao, C. S. (2018). Developing Students’ Writing Skills in English - A Process Approach. Journal for Research Scholars and Professionals of English Language Teaching., 6(2).

Farooqui, A. (2023). Writing assignments difficulties, factors, and solutions: ESL teachers’ perspectives. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume, 14

Fawa’reh,A,.(2019). The Skill of Writing from a Linguistic and Cognitive perspective.Jerash for Research and Studies Vol. 20 No 1, 2019, pp 365-371

Ferraz, A. S., Santos, A. A. A. D., & Noronha, A. P. P. (2023). Self-Regulation for Reading Comprehension: Assessment of Strategies and Time Management. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 39, e39307.

Filgona, J., Sakiyo, J., Gwany, D. M., & Okoronka, A. U. (2020). Motivation in Learning. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 10(4), 16-37. doi:10.9734/AJESS/2020/v10i430273

Graham, S. (2019). Changing How Writing is Taught. Review of Research in Education, Vol. 43 (1), 277-303.

Graham, S., Camping, A., Harris, K., R., Aitken, A., A., Wilson, J., M., Wdowin, J., & Ng, C. (2021). Writing and Writing Motivation of Students Identified as English Language Learners. International Journal of TESOL Studies Vol. 3 (1) 1-13 https://doi.org/10.46451/ijts.2021.01.01

Guo, X. (2023). Multimodality in language education: implications of a multimodal affective perspective in foreign language teaching. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1283625.

Hadiani, D., & .Permata, N., N. Permata (2019). An Analysis of Students' Writing Skills: Focus on Grammatical and Disccourse Competence. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol. 22, No. 2, October 2019, pp. 198-208. DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2019.220206

Haerazi. (2019). Practicing Genre-Based Language Teaching Model to Improve Students' Achievement of Writing Skills. Indoensian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Vol. 4 (1), 9-18. e-ISSN: 2527-8746; p-ISSN: 2527-6492.

Hafidz, M., & Aditya, M. Y. (2019). Learning of Cross-Cultural Based Writing Skill in The English Camp Program (ECP) of English Education Department. TELL: Teaching of English Language and Literature Journal, Vol. 7 (2) , 51-56. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30651/tell.v7i2.3409.

Hwang, H., & Kim, H. (2023). Automatic analysis of constructional diversity as a predictor of EFL students’ writing proficiency. Applied Linguistics, 44(1), 127-147.

Ikhtiyorovna, K. G. Z. (2023). Mastering the art of effective speaking and reading: strategies for improving speaking and reading skills. International Journal Of Literature And Languages, 3(10), 32-38.

Kang, J., Zhou, Y., Rajarathinam, R. J., Tan, Y., & Shaffer, D. W. (2024). Unveiling joint attention dynamics: Examining multimodal engagement in an immersive collaborative astronomy simulation. Computers & Education, 105002.

Kim, H., Shin, G. H., & Sung, M. C. (2023). Constructional complexity as a predictor of Korean EFL learners’ writing proficiency. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics, 36(2), 436-466.

Kucuk, T. (2023). Factors Leading to Writing Anxiety in EFL Classes. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 10(1), 1-12.

Laiche, S., & Nemouchi, A. (2023). Investigating EFL Learners’ Lacks in Writing. Revue Des Sciences Humaines, 34(1), 77-86.

Lee, N. Y., Wang, Z., & Lim, B. (2024). The development of critical thinking: What university students have to say. Teaching in Higher Education, 29(1), 286-299.

Lestari, I., Masrul., & Rianti, W. (2022). An Analysis on Students' Writing Motivation at SMKN 1 Bangkinang. TELL-US Journal Vol.8, Issue 2, Sept. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22202/tus.2022.v8i2.5889

Lin, X. (2023). Exploring the role of ChatGPT as a facilitator for motivating self-directed learning among adult learners. Adult Learning, 10451595231184928.

Mahmud, S., Akmal, S., & Arias, A. (2023). Is it More Intrinsic or Extrinsic? The Motivation of Gayonese EFL Students to Learn English. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 11(1), 253-278.

Moybeka, A. M., Syariatin, N., Tatipang, D. P., Mushthoza, D. A., Dewi, N. P. J. L., & Tineh, S. (2023). Artificial Intelligence and English Classroom: The Implications of AI Toward EFL Students’ Motivation. Edumaspul: Jurnal Pendidikan, 7(2), 2444-2454.

Muftah, M. (2023). Data-driven learning (DDL) activities: do they truly promote EFL students’ writing skills development?. Education and Information Technologies, 28(10), 13179-13205.

Nazir, M., Kayani, A. I., & Yasin, B. (2023). Errors in English Writing Composition at Undergraduate Level: A Case Study of Private Universities, Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review, 7(2), 879-886.

Ouahidi, M. (2020). On the Relationship between Writing Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Gender in Tertiary Education. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences, 5(3). https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijels.53.20

Patwary, M. N., Reza, M. M., Akhter, H., & Chowdhury, S. (2023). Exploring Academic Writing Proficiency of Tertiary EFL Learners of Bangladesh: A Pedagogical Implication. Integrated Journal for Research in Arts and Humanities, 3(5), 89-102

Pei, Z., Zheng, C., Zhang, M., & Liu, F. (2017). Critical Thinking and Argumentative Writing: Inspecting the Association among EFL Learners in China. English Language Teaching, Vol. 10 (10), DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n10p31.

Philippakos, Z. A. T. (2023). Writing Instruction: Evidence-Based Practices and Critical Perspectives. In Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (pp. 71-95). Routledge.

Phuong, H. Y., Phan, Q. T., & Le, T. T. (2023). The effects of using analytical rubrics in peer and self-assessment on EFL students’ writing proficiency: a Vietnamese contextual study. Language Testing in Asia, 13(1), 42.

Pratiwi, A., Hendriwanto., & Nurjannah, N. (2021). Exploring Students' Motivation in Writing Learning: A Case Study of University Students. Academic Journal PERSPECTIVE: Education, Language, and Literature. Vol.9 (1) May 2021, 50-57. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33603/perspective.v9i1.5295

Pratiwi, Y.,E., Rukmini, D., & Faridi, A. (2017). The Linguistic Problems of Students’ Competence in Writing Business Letters. Language Circle: Journal of Language and Literature, XI/2.

Prittimaa, R., Takala, M., & Ladonlahti, T. (2015). Students in higher education with reading and writing difficulties. Education Inquiry, Vol. 6 (1).

Quadir, B., Yang, J. C., & Wang, W. (2024). Factors influencing the acquisition of English skills in an English learning environment using Rain Classroom. Interactive Learning Environments, 32(1), 1-19.

Quinonez-Beltran, A., Cabrera-Solano, P., & Castillo-Cuesta, L. (2023). Implementing Active Reading Strategies in Virtual Settings: High School Students’ Experience During Remote Learning. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 22(8), 169-182.

Rao, P. S. (2019). Teaching of Writing Skills to Foreign or Second Language Learners of English. ELT Vibes: International E-Journal for Research in ELT, Vol. 5 (2), 136-152.

Rastri, A., Rezeki, S. Y., Salam, U., Riyanti, D., Surmiyati (2023). An Analysis of Students’ Problems in Writing A Research Proposal. Acitya: Journal of Teaching and Education. Vol. V No. 1, 2023. DOI: 10.30650/ajte.v5i1.3479

Ravichandran, R. R., & Mahapatra, J. (2023). Virtual reality in vocational education and training: challenges and possibilities. Journal of Digital Learning and Education, 3(1), 25-31.

Ray, A., Graham, S., Houston, J., & Harris, K. R. (2016). Teachers’ use of writing to support students’ learning in middle school: A national survey in the United States. Reading & Writing: An International Journal, 29, 1039–1068.

Renandya, W. (2021). Can Reading Lead to Better Writing?. Willy's ELT Corner, October 15. 2021. https://willyrenandya.com/can-reading-lead-to-better-writing/. Retreived, August, 17, 2023.

Risman, K. J., & Rozimela, Y. (2019). The correlation between reading habit and students’ writing ability. International Journal of Science and Research, 8(5), 221-224

Sattar, A., Shakir, A., & Amjad, H. (2023, March). The Relationship Between Grammatical Knowledge and Argumentative Essay Writing Proficiency Among IELTS Test Takers in Pakistan. In Linguistic Forum-A Journal of Linguistics (Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-7).

Sermsook, K., Liamnimitr, J., & Pochakorn, R. (2017). The Impact of Teacher Corrective Feedback on EFL Student Writers' Grammatical Improvement. English Language Teaching, Vol. 10 (10), DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n10p43.

Shahsavar, Z. (2019). Diagnosing English learners’ writing skills: A cognitive diagnostic modeling study. Cogent Education, Vol. 6 (1).

Shao, X., & Purpur, G. (2016). "Effects of Information Literacy Skills on Student Writing and Course Performance." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 42(6): 670-678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2016.08.006. Publisher version of record available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0099133316301756

Shokirovna, D. S. (2023). Grammar Plays an Important Role in Teaching Foreign Languages. American Journal of Language, Literacy and Learning in STEM Education (2993-2769), 1(9), 151-154.

Siregar, F. A., Batubara, A. F., & Manisha, C. R. (2023). Analysis Of Student Error In Writing Descriptive Text. PUSTAKA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pendidikan, 3(4), 151-161

Smetanova, E. (2013). Writing as Part of Foreign Language Acquisition. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 106, 3375-3380.

Sudirman, A., Gemilang, A. V., Kristanto, T. M. A., Male, H., & Kurniawan, R. (2023). The Impact of Pandemic Writing on EFL Students' Critical Thinking Skills: An Exploratory Study: English. Journal of English Development, 3(02), 65-79

Teng, L. S. (2024). Individual differences in self-regulated learning: Exploring the nexus of motivational beliefs, self-efficacy, and SRL strategies in EFL writing. Language Teaching Research, 28(2), 366-388

Toba, R., Noor, W. N., & Sanu, L. O. (2019). The Current Issues of Indonesian EFL Students' Writing Skills: Ability, Problem, dan Reason in Writing Comparison and Contrast Essay. Dinamika Ilmu, Vol. 19 (1), 57-73. DOI: http://doi.org/10.21093/di.v19i1.1506.

Uluşan, A . (2018). A cognitive approach to writing skill and the importance of practice. RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, (13), 226-235. DOI: 10.29000/rumelide.504950

Vakili, S., & Ebadi, S. (2019). Investigating contextual effects on Iranian EFL learners` mediation and reciprocity in academic writing. Cogent Education, Vol. 6 (1), doi:10.1080/2331186X.2019.1571289.

Waer, H. (2023). The effect of integrating automated writing evaluation on EFL writing apprehension and grammatical knowledge. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 17(1), 47-71

Wahyuni, D. S., Darmansyah, & J, F. Y. (2021). Writing skills deficiency in English for specific purposes (ESP):. Journal of Applied Studies in Language, Vol. 5 (1), 95 - 100. DOI: http://ojs.pnb.ac.id/index.php/JASL.

Wang, Q. (2023). Text memorization: An effective strategy to improve Chinese EFL learners’ argumentative writing proficiency. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1126194.

Wang, Y., Derakhshan, A., Pan, Z., & Ghiasvand, F. (2023). Chinese EFL teachers’ writing assessment feedback literacy: A scale development and validation study. Assessing Writing, 56, 100726

Wertz, R. E. H., Fosmire, M., Purzer, S., Sragih, A. I., Van Epps, A. S., Sapp Nelson, M. R., & Dillman, B. G. (2013). Work in progress: Critical thinking and information literacy: Assessing student performance. Proceedings of the 120th ASEE conference. Washington D.C.: American Society for Engineering Education Retrieved from http://www.asee.org/public/conferences/20/papers/6925/view

Yang, L. F., Zhang, L. J., & Dixon, H. R. (2023). Understanding the impact of teacher feedback on EFL students’ use of self-regulated writing strategies. Journal of Second Language Writing, 60, 101015.

Yani, F., I., Suyadi., & Dinata. R. P. (2022). The Factors Affecting Students’ Difficulties in Conducting Thesis at English Language Educational the University of Batanghari Jambi JELT: Journal of English Language Teaching, Vol.6 No.2.

Yasin, A. (2011). Penelitian Tindakan Kelas: Tuntunan Praktis. Padang: Bung Hatta University Press.

Yuksel, P., & Bailey, J. (2024). Designing a Holistic Syllabus: A Blueprint for Student Motivation, Learning Efficacy, and Mental Health Engagement. In Innovative Instructional Design Methods and Tools for Improved Teaching (pp. 92-108). IGI Global.

Zakirovich, G. B. (2023). Accuracy and fluency in language teaching. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Issn: 2277-3630 Impact Factor: 7.429, 12(05), 19-25

Zhai, X., & Razali, A. B. (2023). Triple method approach to development of a genre-based approach to teaching ESL/EFL writing: A systematic literature review by bibliometric, content, and scientometric analyses. SAGE Open, 13(1), 21582440221147255.

Zhang, M. (2024). A Hybrid Golden Course Instructional Design Intervention Model Based on Self-Regulation Theory. Applied & Educational Psychology, 5(2), 111-117.

Zumbrunn, S., & Bruning, R. (2023). Evaluating the effectiveness of writing interventions: Motivational outcomes. In Conceptualizing, Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Writing Interventions (pp. 251-269). Brill.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 106 times | PDF view : 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 

Flag Counter

 

Eralingua has been indexed by: