Kick Frequency and Velocity Finswimming Analysis In Surface 100 Meter Number Reviewed From Stiffness Monofins Hard and Stiffness Monofins Exstra Hard Characteristics

Fikri Rizkia(1*), Nina Sutresna(2), Raden Boyke Mulyana(3), Ahmad Zaeri Sya'rani(4),

(1) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(2) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(3) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(4) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author



Finswimming is a water sport that is done using assistive devices, such as bins, monofins, and snorkels. The fastest sport that is carried out in the pool is getting more and more enthusiasts and is starting to attract a lot of attention in its activities. The growing development of this sport makes manufacturers of monofins tools increasingly develop the types of stiffness that are presented, including stiffness monofins hard and stiffness monofins extra hard. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kick frequency and velocity in the number 100 Meter surface in terms of the characteristics of the stiffness monofins hard and the stiffness monofins extra hard. This research method is descriptive quantitative with a cross-sectional research design. The population of this research is finswimming athletes in Bandung, purposive sampling technique is used to determine the sample with several criteria. The sample consisted of 16 athletes with the following criteria: (1) Bandung City Finswimming Athletes had practiced monofins for at least three years. (2) had monofins stiffness hard and extra hard. (3) is in the top 20 of the inter-regional championship monofins. The conclusion of this study, the stiffness monofins hard and stiffness monofins extra hard contributed less to the kick frequency, while on the velocity both had an effect and the stiffness monofins hard gave a greater influence with a percentage of 98.3%.


Finswimming; Monofins; Velocity; Kick Frequency; Stiffness.

Full Text:



Abdulazim, B. S., & Mohamadine, A. A. (2017). Effect of Training Program Using Functional Strength Exercises on Developing Trunk Muscles Efficiency for Mono Fin Junior Swimmers. Journal of Applied Sports Science, 7(2), 18–26.

Boitel, G., Vercruyssen, F., Alberty, M., Nesi, X., Bourdon, L., & Brisswalter, J. (2010). Kick frequency affects the energy cost of aquatic locomotion in elite monofin swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(6), 1087–1093.

Borazjani, I., & Sotiropoulos, F. (2010). On the role of form and kinematics on the hydrodynamics of self-propelled body/caudal fin swimming. Journal of Experimental Biology, 213(1), 89–107.

Caspersen, C., Berthelsen, P. A., Eik, M., Pâkozdi, C., & Kjendlie, P. L. (2010). Added mass in human swimmers: Age and gender differences. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(12), 2369–2373.

Connaboy, C., Naemi, R., Brown, S., Psycharakis, S., McCabe, C., Coleman, S., & Sanders, R. (2016). The key kinematic determinants of undulatory underwater swimming at maximal velocity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(11), 1036–1043.

Costill, thomas, R. . . (n.d.). Adaptations_to_swimming_training_influen.pdf.

Craig, A. B., & Pendeegast, D. R. (1979). Relationships of stroke rate, distance per stroke, and velocity in competitive swimming. In Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp. 278–283).

Ganeswara, R., Studi, P., & Keolahragaan, M. (2020). Dan Komunitas Selam Dalam Nomor Apnea Dan Comparison Of Finswimmer Physiological Characteristics With Dive Community In Apnea And Dynamic Apnea. 1–18.

Gautier, J., & Watier, B. (2002). An analysis of kinematics parameters in finswimming. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, 110(SUPPL.), 49.

Kunitson, V., Port, K., & Pedak, K. (2015). Relationship between isokinetic muscle strength and 100 meters finswimming time. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 10(Proc1).

Kunitson, V., Rennama, I., & Port, K. (2013). Relationship between isokinetic muscle strength and finswimming time. Lase Journal of Sport Science, 4(2), 55–62.

Langendorfer, S. J. (2013). Science in swimming IV. In International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education (Vol. 7, Issue 4).

Lin, C. (2015). MEMS Sensors Applied in Finswimming Movement Analysis. 2(1).

Luerse, M. A., Le Riche, R., & Lemosse, D. (2009). Identification of a 3D Shape from a 2D Design: Application to a Swimming Monofin. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology, 80, 1–18.

Luersen, M. A., Le Riche, R., Lemosse, D., & Le Maître, O. (2006). This study demonstrates that the activation pattern of muscles does not change with different fins or different movements. While swimming with short fins, the thigh and the buttocks are significantly more activated and therefore more trained than the shan. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 31(6), 488–496.

Luersen, Marco A., Le Riche, R., Lemosse, D., Le Maître, O., & Breier, E. (2004). Swimming monofin optimization. Collection of Technical Papers - 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, 3(September), 1419–1430.

Mahiou, B., Razafimahery, F., & Rakotomanana, L. R. (2011). Influence of the fluid-structure interaction on the modal analysis, and on the dynamics of composite monofin : Optimization of propulsion. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference - COMPDYN 2011: 3rd International Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering: An IACM Special Interest Conference, Programme, May, 25–28.

Marion, K., Guillaume, G., Pascale, C., Charlie, B., & Anton, S. (2010). Muscle activity during fin swimming. Procedia Engineering, 2(2), 3029–3034.

Nakashima, M., Suzuki, S., & Nakajima, K. (2010). Development of a Simulation Model for Monofin Swimming. Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering, 5(4), 408–420.

Nakashima, M., Tanno, Y., Fujimoto, T., & Masutani, Y. (2018). Development of a Simulation Model for Swimming with Diving Fins. Proceedings, 2(6), 288.

NAKASHIMA, M., YONEDA, T., & TANIGAWA, T. (2019). Simulation analysis of fin swimming with bi-fins. Mechanical Engineering Journal, 6(4), 19-00011-19–00011.

Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. International edition (Seventh). Pearson Education Limited.

Nicolas, G., & Bideau, B. (2009). A kinematic and dynamic comparison of surface and underwater displacement in high level monofin swimming. Human Movement Science, 28(4), 480–493.

Nicolas, G., Bideau, B., Bideau, N., Colobert, B., Le Guerroue, G., & Delamarche, P. (2010). A new system for analyzing swim fin propulsion based on human kinematic data. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(10), 1884–1889.

Oshita, K., Ross, M., Koizumi, K., Kashimoto, S., Yano, S., Takahashi, K., & Kawakami, M. (2009). The critical velocity and 1500-m surface performances in finswimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(8), 598–601.

Patent, U. S. (2010). United States Patent : 3871965 United States Patent : 3871965. Yeast, 2, 4–6.

Ping, Q., Chaoying, W., & Weitao, Z. (2011). Application of SEBT on core training measurement on fin swimming athletes. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Future Computer Science and Education, ICFCSE 2011, 2, 344–347.

Rejman, M. (2006). The elements of modelling leg and monofin movements using a neural network. Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, 8(1), 55–63.

Rejman, M., & Ochmann, B. (2009). Modeling of monofin swimming technique: Optimization of feet displacement and fin strain. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 25(4), 340–350.

Rejman, M., Siemontowski, P., & Siemienski, A. (2020). Comparison of performance of various legkicking techniques in fin swimming in terms of achieving the different goals of underwater activities. PLoS ONE, 15(8 August), 1–15.

Rodriguez-Zamora, L., Engan, H. K., Lodin-Sundstrom, A., Schagatay, F., Iglesias, X., Rodriguez, F. A., & Schagatay, E. (2018). Blood lactate accumulation during competitive freediving and synchronized swimming. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine, 45(1), 55–63.

Saito, M. (1982). The Effect of Training on the Relationships Among Velocity, Stroke Rate and Distance Per Stroke in Untrained Subjects Swimming the Breaststroke. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 53(4), 323–329.

Shimojo, H., Sengoku, Y., Miyoshi, T., Tsubakimoto, S., & Takagi, H. (2014). Effect of imposing changes in kick frequency on kinematics during undulatory underwater swimming at maximal effort in male swimmers. Human Movement Science, 38, 94–105.

Stavrou, V., Tsarouhas, K., Karetsi, E., Michos, P., Daniil, Z., & I. Gourgoulianis, K. (2018). Adolescent Finswimmers: Early Myocardial Adaptations in Different Swimming Styles. Sports, 6(3), 78.

Steinberg, F., Dräger, T., Steegmanns, A., Dalecki, M., Röschmann, M., & Hoffmann, U. (2011). Title: Fit2dive-A field test for assessing the specific capability of underwater fin swimming with SCUBA. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 11(1), 197–208.

Takahashi, S., Wakayoshi, K., Hayashi, A., Sakaguchi, Y., & Kitagawa, K. (2009). A method for determining critical swimming velocity. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(2), 119–123.

Toubekis, A. G., Vasilaki, A., Douda, H., Gourgoulis, V., & Tokmakidis, S. (2011). Physiological responses during interval training at relative to critical velocity intensity in young swimmers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(4), 363–368.

Vercruyssen, F., Boitel, G., Alberty, M., Nesi, X., Bourdon, L., & Brisswalter, J. (2012). Influence of kick frequency on metabolic efficiency and performance at a severe intensity in international monofin-swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(10), 1055–1061.

Vodickova, S., Lufinka, A., & Zubek, T. (2005). Application of the Dynamographic Method in Alpine Skiing. Human Movement, 6(1), 19–23. mov

Wylegala, J. A., Pendergast, D. R., Gosselin, L. E., Warkander, D. E., & Lundgren, C. E. G. (2007). Respiratory muscle training improves swimming endurance in divers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(4), 393–404.

Yamakawa, K. K., Shimojo, H., Takagi, H., Tsubakimoto, S., & Sengoku, Y. (2017). Effect of increased kick frequency on propelling efficiency and muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick. Human Movement Science, 54(June), 276–286.

Zamparo, P., Pendergast, D. R., Termin, A., & Minetti, A. E. (2006). Economy and efficiency of swimming at the surface with fins of different size and stiffness. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96(4), 459–470.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 163 times | PDF view : 36 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Fikri Rizkia, Nina Sutresna, Raden Boyke Mulyana, Ahmad Zaeri Sya'rani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


 Creative Commons License COMPETITOR is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


 width= Kampus FIK Banta Bantaeng, Jalan Wijaya Kusuma Nomor 14, Rappocini, Makassar, Postal Code 90222