The Effectiveness Of Using Dynamic Visualization In Natural Science Learning To Improve Students' Understanding In Junior High Schools

I Gde Wawan Sudatha(1*), Alexander Hamonangan Simamora(2),

(1) Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
(2) Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
(*) Corresponding Author



Visualization can support an instructional process. Visualization consists of all types of nonverbal illustrations. The very rapidly computer technology enables the development of multimedia learning environment. This research was aimed at describing the effectiveness and attractiveness of the use of dynamic visualization in an instruction on transportation system and excretion in organisms. Sixty four students of grade 8 who consisted of 36 males and 28 females were used as the subjects of the research. The data of the research were collected in the form of pre-test and post-test scores in the students’ understanding of transportation system and excretion in organisms and in the attractiveness of the use of dynamic visualization in the instruction. Statistical test showed that the mean of the comprehension test before the use of dynamic visualization differed significantly from that after the use of dynamic visualization and that dynamic visualization was attractive to be used in the instruction. Hence, it can be concluded that dynamic visualization can enhance students’ understanding.


animation, dynamic visualization, multimedia, science instruction, understanding.

Full Text:



Ainsworth, S., & VanLabeke, N. (2004). Multiple forms of dynamic representation. Learning and Instruction, 14(3), 241–255.

Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2004). Examining the Effects of Tex-Only and Text-and-Visual Instructional Materials on the Achievement of Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners During Problem-Solving with Modeling Software. Journal Educational Technology Research and Development, 52(4), 1042-1629.

Ali, S. M. A., & Ambusaidi, S. A. A. K. (2017). The effectiveness of interacting with scientific animations in chemistry using mobile devices on grade 12 students’ spatial ability and scientific reasoning skills. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 26(1), 70–81.

Arends, R., I. (2004). Learning How to Teach (6th Ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th Ed.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.

Ashkenazi, G. & Weaver, G. C. (2007). Using lecture demontrations to promote the refinement of concept: the case of teaching solven miscibility. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 8, 186-196.

Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. Science, 255, 556–559.

Barak, M., & Dori, Y. J. (2011). Science education in primary schools: is an animation worth a thousand pictures?. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 20, 608–620.

Baser, M. (2006). Promoting conceptual change through active learning using open source software for physics simulations. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 22, 336-354.

Baytiyeh, H., & Naja, M. K. (2010). Do Multimedia features promote understanding and retention. Journal of Instructional Media, 37(1), 43-53.

Branch, R. M. (2009). Instructional design: the ADDIE approach. New York: Springer.

Chang, H. Y., & Linn, M. C. (2013). Scaffolding learning from molecular visualizations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50, 858–886.

Degeng, I. N. S. (2013). Ilmu pembelajaran: klasifikasi variabel untuk pengembangan teori dan penelitian. Bandung: Aras Media.

de Jong, T. (2010). Cognitive load theory, educational research, and instructional design: Some food for thought. Instructional Science, 38(2), 105–134.

de Koning, B. B., Tabbers, H., Rikers, R. M. J. P., & Paas, F. (2010). Attention cueing as a means to enhance learning from animation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 731–746.

Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., & Cate, C. (2003). The Roles of Mental Animations and External Animations in Understanding Mechanical Systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21, 325–360.

Heinich, R., Molenda, R., Russel, J., D., & Smaldino, S., E. (2002). Instructional media and technologies for learning (7th ed). New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Hoffler, T., N. (2010). Spatial Ability: Its Influence on Learning with Visualizations—a Meta-Analytic Review. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 245-269.

Horz, H., & Schnotz, W. (2010). Cognitive Load in Learning with Multiple Representations. In Plaas, J., L., Moreno, R., Brunken, R., (Ed.). Cognitive Load Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kühl, T., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Gemballa, S. (2011). Can differences in learning strategies explain the benefits of learning from static and dynamic visualizations?, Computers & Education, 56, 176–187.

Lin, H., & Dwyer, F. M. (2010). The effect of static and animated visualization: a perspective of instructional effectiveness and efficiency. Journal Education Technology Research and Development, 58(2), 155-174.

Lundy, A., D., & Stephens, A. E. (2015) Beyond the literal: teaching visual literacy in the twenty-first century classroom. Procedia-Social Behavaviour Science, 174, 1057–1060.

Mayer, R. E., & Chandler, P. (2001). When learning is just a click away: Does simple user interaction foster deeper understanding of multimedia messages? Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 390–397.

Mayer, R.E., (2009). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mayer, R. E. (2011). Instruction Based on Visualization. Mayer, R. E., & Alexander, P., A. (Eds). Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction (427-442). New York: Springer.

Mayer, R. E. (2014). Multimedia Instruction. Spector, J. M., Elen, J., Merrill, M. D., Bishop, M. J. (Eds). Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (385-399). New York: Springer.

NRC—National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning, Washington: National Academies Press.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Reigeluth, C. M, (1999). Instructional Design Theory and Models. Volume 2. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Scheiter, K., Wiebe, E., & Holsanova, J. (2009). Theoretical and instructional aspects of learning with visualizations. In Zheng, R. (Ed.). Cognitive Effects of Multimedia Learning. New York: IGI Global.

Schnotz, W, & Rasch, T. (2005). Enabling, facilitating, and inhibiting effects of animations in multimedia learning: why reduction of cognitive load can have negative results on learning. Journal Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(3), 47–58.

Smaldino, S., E., Russel, J., D., Heinich, R., & Molenda, M. (2005). Instructional Technology and Media for Learning (8th Ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc.

So, W.M. & Kong, S.C. (2008). Approaches of inquiry learning with multimedia resources in primary classroom. Journal of Computer in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 26, 329-354.

Sudatha, G. W., Degeng, N. S., & Kamdi, W. (2018). The effect of visualization type and student spatial ability on learning achievement. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 17(4), 551–563.

Tversky, B., Morrison, J. B., & Betrancourt, M. (2002). Animation: Can it Facilitate? International Journal of Human–Computer Studies, 57, 247–262.

Wichmann, A., & Timpe, S. (2015). Can dynamic visualizations with variable control enhance the acquisition of intuitive knowledge ? Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24, 709–720.

Wu, H., K., Lin, Y., F., Hsu, Y., S. (2013). Effects of Representation Sequences and Spatial Ability on Students’ Scientific Understandings about the Mechanism of Breathing. Instructional Science, 41(3), 555-573.

Zhang, Z. H., & Linn, M. (2011). Can generating representations enhance learning with dynamic visualizations?, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(10), 1177–1198.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 326 times | PDF view : 1 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 I Gde Wawan Sudatha, Alexander Hamonangan Simamora

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office

Journal of Educational Science and Technology
Graduate Program Universitas Negeri Makassar


address icon red

 Jl Bonto Langkasa Gunungsari Baru Makassar, 90222 Kampus PPs UNM Makassar Gedung AD Ruang 406 Lt 4, Indonesia  
  [email protected] | [email protected] 
   085299898201 (WA) 

EST Index by: